Based on its belief that the quality of American diplomacy is vital to its effectiveness, the Academy strives to foster high standards of qualification for, and performance in, the conduct of diplomacy and the foreign affairs of the United States; to increase public understanding and appreciation of the contributions of diplomacy to the national interests of the United States; to study and, as appropriate, to disseminate findings and recommendations with regard to the conduct and content of American foreign policy; and to encourage the strengthening and improvement of American diplomatic representation abroad.
The American Council for the United Nations University is a U.S. NGO that provides a point of contact between Americans and the primary research organ of the UN—the United Nations University (UNU)—which focuses intellectual resources from all nations on world problems. The Millennium Project of the ACUNU is a global participatory futures research think tank of futurists, scholars, business planners, and policy makers who work for international organizations, governments, corporations, NGOs, and universities. The Millennium Project manages a coherent and cumulative process that collects and assesses judgements from its several hundred participants to produce the annual State of the Future, Futures Research Methodology series, and special studies.
The Arms Control Association (ACA), founded in 1971, is a national nonpartisan membership organization dedicated to promoting public understanding of and support for effective arms control policies. Through its public education and media programs and its magazine, Arms Control Today (ACT), ACA provides policy-makers, the press and the interested public with authoritative information, analysis and commentary on arms control proposals, negotiations and agreements, and related national security issues. In addition to the regular press briefings ACA holds on major arms control developments, the Association's staff provides commentary and analysis on a broad spectrum of issues for journalists and scholars both in the United States and abroad.
The Australian Strategic Policy Institute has been established by the Australian Government as an independent centre of research on strategic and defence policy. ASPI's aim is to promote Australia's security by contributing fresh ideas to Government strategic decision-making, and by helping to inform public discussion of strategic and defence issues. ASPI's work will cover all aspects of national decision-making which bear on Australian security policy.
The Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy (BRIE) is an interdisciplinary research project that focuses on international economic competition and the development and application of advanced technologies. Founded by a group of faculty at the University of California at Berkeley in 1982, BRIE has quickly become one of the leading intellectual voices debating government policy and business strategy in America.
An independent non-profit organization, BICC supports and promotes the process by which people, skills, technology, equipment, financial and economic resources are shifted from the military or the defense sector towards alternative, civilian purposes. Working as a worldwide clearinghouse on practical conversion experiences and projects, BICC provides documentation, research, information and consulting services for governmental and non-governmental organizations, research institutes, companies and individuals involved in conversion.
The Brookings Institution, a private, independent, nonprofit organization, is the nation's oldest think tank, conducting nonpartisan research in economics, governmental studies, foreign policy, and the social sciences generally. Its principal purpose is to bring knowledge to bear on the current and emerging public policy issues facing the American people.
The Canadian Institute of International Affairs (CIIA) promotes a deeper understanding of international affairs and of Canada's role in a changing world by providing members with a non-partisan, nation-wide forum for informed discussion, analysis and debate. By bring together all interested parties - private sector, government, academia, NGO representatives, as well as the concerned public - to examine global issues through a distinctively Canadian lens, the CIIA contributes a unique perspective on Canada's place in the world.
Established in 1976, the Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies has gained wide recognition as the nation's foremost source of independent information and research on a broad range of issues affecting Canada. It satisfies a need for a body of informed opinion on strategic and security issues and stimulates greater public awareness of national and international developments. Through a vigorous program of seminars, publications, educational activities and media relations, the CISS enhances the basis for informed choice by the Canadian public and its leaders. The CISS is a member-based, independent, non-profit organization.
Established by Andrew Carnegie in 1914 to work toward the ideal of world peace, the Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs is the world's premier forum for research and education in ethics and international policy. It provides a home for those who explore the ethical dilemmas posed by issues such as deadly conflict, human rights violations, environmental protection, global economic disparities, and the politics of reconciliation. The Carnegie Council's semiannual journal, Ethics & International Affairs, is an interdisciplinary resource for scholars, students, and policy analysts concerned with the moral dimensions of global issues.
The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace was established in 1910 in Washington, D.C., with a gift from Andrew Carnegie. As a tax-exempt nonprofit organization, the Endowment conducts programs of research, discussion, publication, and education in international affairs and U.S. foreign policy. The Endowment publishes the quarterly magazine, Foreign Policy.
The Carter Center in Atlanta, Ga., is a nonprofit, nonpartisan public policy institute founded by former President Jimmy Carter and his wife, Rosalynn, in 1982. The Center is dedicated to fighting disease, hunger, poverty, conflict, and oppression through collaborative initiatives in the areas of democratization and development, global health, and urban revitalization. At present, the Center operates 13 core programs and initiatives active in more than 30 countries, including the United States.
Founded in 1977, the Cato Institute is a nonpartisan public policy research foundation headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Institute is named for Cato's Letters, libertarian pamphlets that helped lay the philosophical foundation for the American Revolution.
Founded in 1972 by recently-retired, senior U.S. military officers, the Center for Defense Information provides information and analyses to policy-makers around the globe—including the U.S. Congress, government, international agencies, the media and the public. CDI has evolved into one of the foremost organizations in the nation conducting security-related research and is unique among major think tanks in its policy of total independence from vested interests. On television, radio, the Internet, and in print, CDI serves as an authoritative, impartial monitor of global security issues, while continuing to meet the increasing worldwide demand for information and independent ideas.
The Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) is an independent, non-partisan think tank focused on international governance. Led by experienced practitioners and distinguished academics, CIGI supports research, forms networks, advances policy debate and generates ideas for multilateral governance improvements. Conducting an active agenda of research, events and publications, CIGI's interdisciplinary work includes collaboration with policy, business and academic communities around the world.
CIGI's research programs focus on: global economy, global security & politics and international law. Founded in 2001, CIGI collaborates with several research affiliates and gratefully acknowledges support from a number of funding partners, in particular the Government of Canada and the Government of Ontario.
The Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) was created at the Monterey Institute of International Studies (MIIS) by Dr. William C. Potter to confront the serious threat of international proliferation of nuclear, missile, biological, chemical, and advanced conventional weapons. More than two dozen people of eclectic qualifications comprise the staff of the CNS.
(Formerly the Center for Post-Soviet Studies) The Center for Political and Strategic Studies is a non-profit organization dedicated to broadening Western knowledge and understanding of complex international and domestic events. Through publications, briefings, and symposia, The Center promotes informed debate on the nature of international developments and assesses emerging trends to help shape a more forward-looking approach to issues of vital long-term importance to the United States. The Center provides an organizational vehicle for scholars, but does not itself advocate specific policies or attempt to influence legislation
The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is a public policy research institution dedicated to policy analysis and impact. CSIS is the only institution of its kind that maintains resident experts on all the world's major geographical regions. It also covers key functional areas, such as international finance, the emerging markets, U.S. domestic and economic policy related to the Strengthening of America, and U.S. foreign policy and national security issues.
The Center for Security Studies and Conflict Research, founded in 1986 and based at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, is an independent academic institution researching and teaching in the fields of security policy and conflict analysis. It relies on a holistic concept of security encompassing military, political, economic, social and ecological dimensions. The work of the Center is focused on three main research areas: 1. Swiss security policy, 2. international, primarily U.S. and European, security policy, and 3. basic conflict and peace research.
The Centre for the Study of Conflict is a research centre in the University of Ulster. The Centre has been in existence since 1977 and has produced a wide range of publications on various aspects of the conflict in Northern Ireland. Details of, and extracts from, all the Centre's publications are available at the new Internet site.
Chatham House, the Royal Institute of International Affairs, is an independent policy institute based in London. Our mission is to help build a sustainably secure, prosperous and just world. Founded in 1920, Chatham House engages governments, the private sector, civil society and its members in open debate and confidential discussion on the most significant developments in international affairs. The institute's award-winning reports, papers, books and other research outputs are a vital resource for leaders and policy-makers in government, the private sector and civil society. International Affairs, Britain's leading journal of international relations, was founded by and is edited at the institute.
The Center for the Study of Intelligence, part of the U.S Central Intelligence Agency, conducts research on intelligence, publishes classified and unclassified editions of the Studies in Intelligence journal as well as books and monographs, and coordinates a number of academic outreach programs.
The Council on Foreign Relations was founded in 1921 by businessmen, bankers, and lawyers determined to keep the United States engaged in the world. Today, the Council is composed of men and women from all walks of international life and from all parts of America, dedicated to the belief that the nation's peace and prosperity are firmly linked to that of the rest of the world. From this flows the Council's mission: to foster America's understanding of other nations—their peoples, cultures, histories, hopes, quarrels, and ambitions—and thus to serve our nation through study and debate, private and public. The Council also publishes Foreign Affairs, the leading periodical in the field. This magazine has been host to the most important articles about world affairs in this century.
Discovery Institute's mission is to make a positive vision of the future practical. The Institute, headquartered in Seattle, discovers and promotes ideas in the common sense tradition of representative government, the free market and individual liberty--through books, reports, legislative testimony, articles, public conferences and debates, plus media coverage and the Institute's own publications and award-winning Internet website. Current projects explore the fields of technology, science and culture, reform of the law, national defense, the environment and the economy, the future of democratic institutions, transportation, religion and public life, government entitlement spending, foreign affairs and cooperation within the bi-national region of "Cascadia."
A gathering on the World Wide Web of political publications, think tanks and policy institutes. The site features a virtual magazine, Idea Central, that combines the resources of EPN's members and affiliates into topical pages. Current pages include Health Policy, Civic Participation, Economics and Politics, Welfare and Families, Education and Media Old and New. The EPN is a project of the The American Prospect, a liberal bi-monthly policy magazine.
The Federation of American Scientists is engaged in analysis and advocacy on science, technology and public policy concerning global security. A privately-funded non-profit policy organization whose Board of Sponsors includes over 55 American Nobel Laureates, FAS was founded as the Federation of Atomic Scientists in 1945 by members of the Manhattan Project who produced the first atomic bomb.
Born on January 19, 1994, Friends and Partners is one of the first information services developed jointly by citizens of the United States and Russia. Resulting from a chance meeting on the Internet, it is but one of many examples of how the Internet, itself rooted in the Cold War separating our nations, can provide an effective means of bringing us together. It now represents a community of people all over the world who provide information and communications services to promote better understanding, friendship and partnership between individuals and organizations of the United States (and, more broadly, "the west") and countries of the Former Soviet Union.
The Georgian Foundation for Strategic and International Studies (GFSIS) is an independent, non-profit organization dedicated to helping improve public policy decision-making in Georgia through research and analysis, training of policymakers and policy analysts, and public education about the strategic issues, both domestic and international, facing Georgia in the 21st century.
The GKP is the leading international multi-stakeholder network committed to harnessing the potential of information and communication technologies (ICT) for sustainable and equitable development. Ranging from grassroots practitioners to policy-makers, GKP members and partners are innovators in the practical use of ICT for development. Through the GKP, governments, business and civil society organizations share their experience, ideas, issues and solutions to unleash the potential of ICT to improve lives, reduce poverty and empower people. While fostering meaningful exchanges and learning, GKP also provides the platform for building effective multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) to generate innovative and practical solutions to development problems, and creates opportunities for scaling up ICT initiatives and spreading their benefits.
The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace at Stanford University is a center for advanced study in domestic and international affairs. Founded by President Herbert Hoover in 1919, it contains one of the largest private archives and most complete libraries in the world on economic, political, and social change in the twentieth century, as well as a scholarly press.
The Human Security Centre at the Liu Institute for Global Issues works to make human security-related research more accessible to the policy and research communities, the media, educators and the interested public. The Human Security Centre's flagship publication, the annual Human Security Report, is complemented by the Human Security Gateway (an online database of human security resources), and two online bulletins, Human Security News and Human Security Research. The Human Security Centre also undertakes its own independent research and hosts workshops that bring the research and policy communities together to discuss a range of human security-related issues.
INCORE, the Initiative on Conflict Resolution and Ethnicity, is a joint initiative of the University of Ulster and the United Nations University. INCORE aims to integrate research, training, practice, policy and theory, and to provide an international focus on the growing problems associated with ethnic violence. In co-operation with international organisations, especially the UN and regional bodies, it will develop a systematic approach to the problems of ethnic conflict. It will draw on existing expertise on training, and add to it approaches not currently represented in training programmes. In particular, the new programme will have a strong policy emphasis and reflect the concerns of the United Nations.
The University of California Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation (IGCC) was founded in 1983 as a multi-campus research unit serving the entire University of California (UC) system to study the causes of international conflict and help devise options for resolving it through international cooperation. IGCC's unique structure enables research teams to be drawn from all nine UC campuses and the UC-managed Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories, providing broad-based links to the U.S. government, foreign governments, and foreign policy institutes from around the globe. Main offices are located at UC San Diego's La Jolla campus.
The Institute for International Economics is a private, nonprofit, nonpartisan research institution devoted to the study of international economic policy. Since 1981 the Institute has provided timely, objective analysis and concrete solutions to key international economic problems. The Institute attempts to anticipate emerging issues and to be ready with practical ideas to inform and shape public debate. Its audience includes government officials and legislators, business and labor leaders, management and staff at international organizations, university-based scholars and their students, other research institutions and nongovernmental organizations, the media, and the public at large. It addresses these groups both in the United States and around the world.
The Institute for National Security Studies launches and engages in innovative, relevant, high-quality research that sapes the public discourse of issues on Israel's national security agenda, and provides policy analysis and recommendations to decision makers, public leaders, and the strategic community, both in israel and abroad. As part of its mission, it is committed to encourage new ways of thinking abd expand the traditional contours of establishment analysis.
IWPR is an independent conflict-monitoring charity which informs the international debate on conflict and provides a platform and other support for voices of moderation caught in war. IWPR provides communications assistance, training and other support for independent media in the Balkans and Caucasus. IWPR provides research assistance and briefings for international media.
The International Crisis Group is an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organization, working through field-based analysis and high-level advocacy to prevent and resolve deadly conflict. Crisis Group's approach is grounded in field research. Teams of political analysts are located within or close by countries at risk of outbreak, escalation or recurrence of violent conflict. Crisis Group produces regular analytical reports containing practical recommendations targeted at key international decision-takers and publishes CrisisWatch, a succinct, monthly update on the state of play in all the most significant situations of conflict or potential conflict around the world.
The International Development Research Centre is a public corporation created by the Parliament of Canada to help researchers and communities in the developing world find solutions to their social, economic, and environmental problems. IDRC connects people, institutions, and ideas to ensure that the results of the research it supports and the knowledge that research generates, are shared equitably among all its partners, North and South.
The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis is an international research institute established in 1972 by the USA and the Soviet Union as a center for objective, joint East-West study of problems common to modern societies. East-West collaboration remains an important part of IIASA's work, but with the end of the Cold War the emphasis has shifted to the scientific study of global change, in particular the policy aspects of environmental, economic, and technological processes of change.
The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), founded in 1958, is an independent center for research, information and debate on the problems of conflict, however caused, that have, or potentially have, an important military content. Its work is grounded in an appreciation of the various political, economic and social problems that can lead to instability, as well as the factors that can lead to international cooperation. The IISS is affiliated to the International Relations and Security Network.
ISN is a cooperative project to promote free flow of unclassified information in the fields concerned and to facilitate dialogue and networking within the international security community. The final goal is to establish a system of federated electronic services with decentralized operation but made accessible from a single platform on the Internet. ISN was started in 1994 as a result of the first "Institutes and the Security Dialogue" conference (now the "International Security Forum") held in Zurich. It is coordinated and developed by the Center for Security Studies and Conflict Research at the ETH Zurich in cooperation with numerous international partners. The project is supported by the Swiss Government as an official part of Switzerland's participation in Partnership for Peace (PfP).
The Henry Jackson Society: Project for Democratic Geopolitics is a cross-partisan, British-based think-tank. Our founders and supporters are united by a common interest in fostering a strong British and European commitment towards freedom, liberty, constitutional democracy, human rights, governmental and institutional reform and a robust foreign, security and defence policy and transatlantic alliance.
The Liu Institute at the University of British Columbia pursues interdisciplinary and policy-related research and advocacy on global public policy issues related to human security. Its research agenda embraces international relations, human security, peace and disarmament, the environment, conflict and development, and global health and international justice issues.
The Lowy Institute is an independent, nonpartisan think tank which conducts original, policy-relevant research about international political, strategic and economic issues from an Australian perspective. Its research and analysis and its active program of conferences, seminars and other events are designed to inform and deepen the debate about international policy in Australia and to help shape the broader international discussion of these issues.
Founded June 5, 1993, the George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies is located in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. The Marshall Center is dedicated to stabilizing, and thereby strengthening Post-Cold War Europe by aiding defense and foreign ministries in Europe's aspiring democracies in the development of national security organizations and systems that reflect democratic principles. To this end, the Center provides instruction in national security affairs to Europe's senior defense officials; it conducts research on European security issues; it holds conferences on those issues; and it conducts specialized regional studies and language training courses.
My Diplomacy is an international network of independent advisors located throughout the world focusing on global communication and international research. The network, consisting of both professionals and students, provide clients and individuals a method for receiving multiple opinions, advice and proposals from a variety of international sources. Traditionally, clients had to rely on a few firms focused on selling their own international solutions. This type of approach has become less appealing. My Diplomacy is leading the way by connecting individuals, organizations, governments, politicians, military and others with international advisors around the globe.
The National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan research institution dedicated to informing and strengthening policy in the Asia-Pacific. NBR bridges the academic, business, and policy arenas, conducting advanced research on security and globalization issues, with emphasis on those of interest to the United States. Strategic Asia is a major initiative that tracks strategic developments in the Asia Pacific. AccessAsia is the world's clearinghouse for information on contemporary Asian affairs and policy-related issues. The project maintains several databases, including a specialist database that tracks the expertise and current research of leading experts on contemporary Asian affairs.
The North American Institute (NAMI) was created in 1988 to encourage dialogue among the citizens of Canada, the United States and Mexico; to promote a trinational way of thinking; and to develop new and better ways to coordinate policies in the three countries in order to achieve more effective public management. NAMI's ongoing mission is to promote cooperation, networking and teamwork at all levels among the nations of North America and to develop new ideas for the emerging North American community.
The Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) was established by the Norwegian Parliament in 1959 for the purpose of promoting a better understanding of international issues in Norway. NUPI has sought to achieve this by undertaking a wide range of research activities and by disseminating information on international issues. The institute has an independent position in studying matters of relevance to Norwegian foreign policy and economic relations.
Overseas Development Council is a private, non-profit international policy research institute based in Washington, D.C. that seeks to inform and improve the multilateral approaches and institutions--both global and regional--that will play increasingly important roles in the promotion of development and the management of related problems.
The Parliamentary Human Rights Foundation (PHRF) is a worldwide, voluntary, non-partisan, not-for-profit organization committed to the promotion of human rights. We work directly with parliamentarians to: enhance understanding of the meaning and importance of human rights; strengthen institutions for the protection of human rights; improve access to information about human rights conditions; foster international cooperation in the promotion of human rights; offer training and technical assistance to human rights advocates, especially parliamentarians; call attention to human rights abuses that violate internationally recognized standards; and nurture constitutional democracy, the rule of law, and other protections of human rights.
Partners of the Americas (Partners) is a network of citizens from Latin America, the Caribbean and the United States, who volunteer to work together to improve the lives of people across the region, through nonpolitical, community-based activities. Besides providing technical assistance and training to communities in Latin America, the Caribbean and the U.S., Partners' network of volunteers promote collaboration in the region's social and economic development through working relationships among professionals and institutions across the hemisphere.
The mission of the Pearson Peacekeeping Centre is to support and enhance the Canadian contribution to international peace, security, and stability. The Centre conducts research and provides advanced training and educational programmes. The Pearson Peacekeeping Centre is an independent organization established by the Government of Canada in 1994, and is a division of the Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies. The Centre is funded, in part, by the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, and by the Department of National Defence. The PPC accomplishes its mandate by providing research, education and training in all aspects of peacekeeping.
The Progressive Policy Institute is a research and education institute that is a project of the Third Way Foundation, a nonprofit corporation. PPI's mission is to define and promote a new progressive politics for America in the 21st century. Through its research, policies, and perspectives, the Institute is fashioning a new governing philosophy and an agenda for public innovation geared to the Information Age.
Since its inception in 1991, the Project on Defense Alternatives has sought to adapt security policy to the challenges and opportunities of the post-Cold War era. Toward this end it promotes consideration of the broadest range of defense options. Central to its mission is the development of "transitional security policy," which would serve to create conditions favorable to the advent of regional and global cooperative security regimes. A project of the Commonwealth Institute of Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, PDA maintains a variety of Internet libraries on international security issues, available at International Security Online.
RAND is a nonprofit institution that helps improve public policy through research and analysis. From its inception in the days following World War II, RAND has focused on the nation's most pressing policy problems. High-quality, objective research on national security became the institution's first hallmark. In the 1960s, RAND research and analysis began addressing problems of domestic policy. Today, RAND's broad research agenda helps policymakers strengthen the nation's economy, maintain its security, and improve its quality of life by helping them make choices in education, health care, national defense, and criminal and civil justice, among many other areas.
The Royal United Services Institute (RUSI) is an independent think tank engaged in cutting edge defence and security research. A unique institution, founded in 1831 by the Duke of Wellington, RUSI embodies nearly two centuries of forward thinking, free discussion and careful reflection on defence and security matters.
The Center for International Security and Arms Control is a multidisciplinary research organization dedicated to the study of issues of international security. The Center is part of Stanford University's Institute for International Studies, and is located on the Stanford University Campus.
The Henry L. Stimson Center is a nonprofit, nonpartisan institution devoted to enhancing international peace and security through a unique combination of rigorous analysis and outreach. Founded in 1989, the center is committed to making the world a better place through their work, with a vision of "a world in which instruments of security cooperation and peace overtake historic tendencies toward conflict and war." They pursue this vision through work that is intensely practical, nonpartisan, and oriented toward real-world policy makers.
In 1964, Prime Minister Tage Erlander of Sweden put forward the idea of establishing a peace research institute to commemorate Sweden's 150 years of unbroken peace. A Swedish Royal Commission proposed in its 1966 report to establish an institute, later named the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, SIPRI. The task of the Institute is to conduct scientific research on questions of conflict and cooperation of importance for international peace and security with the aim of contributing to an understanding of the conditions for peaceful solution of international conflicts and for a stable peace.
TISS is an interdisciplinary consortium sponsored by three North Carolina research universities sharing an interest in issues of national and international security, broadly defined. These vital questions involve the safety of individuals, groups, peoples and nations. The purpose of TISS is to promote communication, education, and research in the field. To that end TISS organizes seminars and conferences, promote interest in these issues in the community, and foster research.
Clearing house for information on over 40,000 international non-profit organizations and constituencies.
The United Nations University's mission is to contribute, through research and capacity building, to efforts to resolve the pressing global problems that are the concern of the United Nations, its Peoples and Member States. It plays four key roles: an international community of scholars, a bridge between the UN and the international academic community, a think-tank for the UN system, and a builder of capacities, particularly in developing countries.
The United States Institute of Peace is an independent, nonpartisan federal institution created by Congress to promote the prevention, management, and peaceful resolution of international conflicts. Established in 1984, the Institute meets its congressional mandate through an array of programs, including research grants, fellowships, professional training, education programs from high school through graduate school, conferences and workshops, library services, and publications. The Institute's Board of Directors is appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the Senate.
Founded in 1985, The Washington Institute for Near East Policy was established to advance a balanced and realistic understanding of American interests in the Middle East. Under the guidance of a distinguished and bipartisan Board of Advisors, the Institute seeks to bring scholarship to bear on the making of U.S. policy in this vital region of the world. Drawing on the research of its scholars and the experience of policy practitioners, the Institute promotes an American engagement in the Middle East committed to strengthening alliances, nurturing friendships, and promoting security, peace, prosperity, and democracy for the people of the region.
The World Economic Forum is the foremost global community of business, political, intellectual and other leaders of society committed to improving the state of the world. The Forum is an independent international organization incorporated as a Swiss not-for-profit foundation and has NGO consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations.